One of our calculation unit tests would fail erratically. Most of the time, it would pass. But on some runs (one in five?) one calculated double value would mysteriously flip from 0.0 to -0.0. Floating-point numerical errors are well-known, but the nondeterminism was a surprise as we could not think of any random or time-based elements in our calculation.
The cause turned out to be missing hashCode()/equals() on an object that was placed into a map. In such cases, the identity hash is used. The identity hash is typically based upon a memory location or a handle identifier and, as such, can easily change from run to run. The entries in the map were being iterated over, but the changing hashes would cause the iteration order to change. Elaborately calculated values from each iteration were being summed, and the changing summation order would sometimes produce a -0.0 from an underflow.
The nondeterminism did not produce any material errors in the calculated results -- strictly speaking there was not a bug in the code. However, the intermittent failures of JUnit tests was unhelpful.